Sjuttonhundratal 2014

Nordic Yearbook for Eighteenth-Century Studies

DAVID DUNÉR et al.: Eighteenth-Century Crossroads | 7

THOMAS BREDSDORFF: Originalitet og import i Holbergs oplysningstænkning | 11

Originality and Import in Holberg’s Enlightened Thinking

A figurehead of the Danish Enlightenment, Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754) was an intelligent and witty importer of ideas put into circulation by the founding fathers of the European Enlightenment, Pierre Bayle and John Locke among others. In two realms of thought he was entirely original. He was a staunch believer in the equal rights of women, and a shrewd spokesman for anti-authoritarian methods in education. A discussion of the various possible sources of his view of women – whether they were derived from Descartes, from his experience of independent women either in the theatre or in his home town, or caused by a physiological aberration on his part – does not yield convincing results. The sensible conclusion until further evidence is unearthed is that Holberg was indeed original in as much as he – unlike Kant and several other major figures of the Enlightenment – included women in his urge to further mankind’s exit from its self-incurred immaturity. Similarly, but less thoroughly investigated his anti-authoritarian view of education he may have reached independently.

BONNIE CLEMENTSSON: Att söka kungligt tillstånd för giftermål: äktenskapsansökningar från besläktade personer under svenskt 1700-tal | 25

To Ask for the King’s Permission to Marriage: Applications for Marriage between Relatives in Eighteenth Century Sweden

In early modern Western society regulations against incestuous relationships were primarily justified by religion, and kinship by blood and kinship by marriage were treated equally. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Swedish law was among the strictest in these matters, and violations were often punished by execution. Simultaneously, it was possible to ask the king’s permission for a dispensation for marriage between more distant relatives. During the second half of the eighteenth century the number of dispensation applications rose significantly, implying a turning point in attitudes. This article investigates arguments in dispensation applications and subsequent responses from decision holders. The aim is to illustrate how parallel values in society, apart from those of religion, affected the way different relationships were perceived. The study shows that applicants used a range of arguments in persuading authorities that their relationships should be allowed. However, even though authorities took an interest in whether or not applicants were good Christians, and whether or not relationships were honourable (not carnal), there was one decisive factor for granting or denying the applications. If the applicants’ family positions crossed different generations (e.g. man/uncle’s widow) it was considered that the “natural parental respect” would be jeopardised and, irrespective of the applicants’ ages, the application was denied.

PETRI TALVITIE: Black Markets and Desertion: Soldiers’ Criminality in Helsinki 1748–1757 | 45

Black Markets and Desertion: Soldiers’ Criminality in Helsinki 1748–1757

By combining source material from both the military and civilian courts, this article seeks to broaden our view of soldiers’ criminality during the early modern period, especially in garrison towns. Earlier research has stressed soldiers’ propensity to violence and rowdiness. This article, however, highlights soldiers’ activity in the urban black markets. The research focuses on mid- eighteenth century Helsinki, which became an important garrison town and naval base after the Russo-Swedish war (1741–1743), which had unfortunate consequences for Sweden. Thousands of soldiers from nearly all corners of Sweden were transported to the town to construct a new sea fortress, Sveaborg. Soldiers were paid badly and, consequently, they had to resort to illegal means, such as stealing and selling stolen goods, to support themselves and their families. Desertion was especially high among enlisted soldiers.

HARRY R:SON SVENSSON: The Case of Fabian Philip, Karlskrona’s First Jewish Entrepreneur: A Swedish Example of the Port Jews Phenomenon? | 69

The Case of Fabian Philip, Karlskrona’s First Jewish Entrepreneur: A Swedish Example of the Port Jews Phenomenon?

When studying a local society dominated by naval officers and the extent to which they integrated the Jewish community in their midst, a new perspective on Swedish naval history is revealed. The Swedish Royal Navy has always been internationally orientated, but previous research has not taken this into account. Furthermore, not much research has been undertaken on the Swedish Royal Navy at all. As a metropolitan outpost, Karlskrona has generally been seen, by historians and contemporaries alike, as largely peripheral to the upheavals of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Jews were not allowed to settle in Sweden until 1779, but in 1782 their settlement was permitted, though restricted to Stockholm, Gothenburg and Norrköping. The naval city of Karlskrona became an exception to the regulations. Previous research on the Jewish parish in Karlskrona was undertaken in the 1910s, and mistakenly concluded that it was the most unfriendly environment for Jews in early modern Sweden. This article seeks to reinterpret old sources and add newly found ones, which together engender a new perception of Jewish integration in Karlskrona. This is done by adopting the Port Jews concept and recognizing naval cities as internationally orientated production centres. In line with this, the article argues that Karlskrona, together with Gothenburg, should be interpreted as a Swedish example of the Port Jews concept.

ERIC CULLHED: Bakgrunden till Kellgrens ”Öfver Propertii Buste”| 90

The Background to Kellgren’s ”On a bust of Propertius”

This article examines the Swedish eighteenth-century poet Johan Henric Kellgren’s widely celebrated epigram “On a bust of Propertius” (“Öfver Propertii Buste eller Porträt”), published posthumously in Gustaf Regnér’s edition of Kellgren’s collected works. An attractive but fanciful story about the poem as Kellgren’s autobiographical reflection and personal farewell on his deathbed has triggered an unwillingness among scholars to explore what the writer himself declares: that the piece is a translation of the epigram In statuam Propertii by the virtually unknown Italian Renaissance poet Guido Postumo Silvestri of Pesaro. The first section of the article surveys the intertextual field of Postumo’s poem and analyses its fusion of common tropes and motifs in the Greco-Roman and Neo-Latin ekphrastic epigram traditions. The second section traces the subsequent textual history of Postumo’s poem and the changes it underwent in reprints as well as in the eighteenth-century Danish philologist Frederik Plum’s translation into his native language. The third and final section focuses on Kellgren’s interpretation of the Danish text. It was through a process in several stages of reproductions and translations that this Neo-Latin creation was divested of its mythological references and allusions to late-antique poetry, thereby transformed into a pathos-driven swansong.

SHORT ESSAYS:

JAN RAGNAR HAGLAND: Strid om leseopplæringspraksis i Trondheim på 1770-talet? To utgåver av Christian Schultz’ ABC-bok | 101

HREFNA RÓBERTSDÓTTIR: Källutgåvor och ny forskning om 1600- och 1700-talets Island | 106

DISSERTATIONS:

MY HELLSING, Hovpolitik: Hedvig Elisabeth Charlotte som politisk aktör vid det gustavianska hovet, review by Charlotta Wolff | 115

TOMMI KAKKO, Failures by Design: The Transparent Author in English Satire from Marprelate to Pope, review by Adam Borch | 118

JANI MARJANEN, Den ekonomiska patriotismens uppgång och fall: finska hushållningssällskapet i europeisk, svensk och finsk kontext 1720–1840, review by Henrik Knif | 123

KJARTAN KOCH MIKALSEN, Justice among States: Four Essays, review by Georg Cavallar | 126

KRISTIAN NILSSON, Baltic-Finns and Scandinavians: Comparative-Historical Linguistics and the Early History of the Nordic Region, review by Per Pippin Aspaas | 127

HANNE ØSTHUS, Contested Authority: Master and Servant in Copenhagen and Christiania, 1750– 1850, review by Carolyn Steedman | 132

MIKKEL VENBORG PEDERSEN, Luksus: forbrug og kolonier i Danmark i det 18. århundrede,, review by Kari Telste | 134

LISA SKOGH, Material Worlds: Queen Hedwig Eleonora as Collector and Patron of the Arts, review by Emma Hagström Molin | 136

LITERATURE:

KARSTEN ALNÆS, 1814: miraklenes år, review by Jakob Maliks | 140

CHARLOTTE APPEL & MORTEN FINK-JENSEN, Da læreren holdt skole: tiden før 1780, review by Øystein Lydik Idsø Viken | 141

EVA HÆTTNER AURELIUS, HEDDA GUNNENG & JON HELGASON (eds.), Women’s Language: An Analysis of Style and Expression in Letters before 1800, review by Cecilia Rosengren | 144

CARIN BERGSTRÖM,Passion & skilsmässa: om spruckna äktenskap inom högadeln vid sekelskiftet 1800, review by Brita Planck | 146

RIC BERMAN, The Battle that Forged Freemasonry, review by Marcus Willén | 147

CÉLINE BORELLO, Du Désert au Royaume: Parole publique et écriture protestante (1765–1788), review by Sven Björkman | 149

IDA BULL, Kunnskap – hver etter sin stand og sitt kjønn: utdanning i norske byer på 1700-tallet, review by Randi Skjelmo | 151

CAMILLA KOLSTAD DANIELSEN, Opplysningens stjerne: Voltaire, review by Ingvild Hagen Kjørholt | 153

JANINE DRIANCOURT-GIROD, Den sällsamma historien om lutheranerna i Paris: från Ludvig XIII till Napoleon, review by Sven Björkman | 155

SEAN A. EDDIE, Freedom’s Price: Serfdom, Subjection, & Reform in Prussia, 1648–1848, review by Eva Krause Jørgensen | 160

CECILIA AF FORSELLES & TUIJA LAINE (eds.), The Emergence of Finnish Book and Reading Culture in the 1700s, review by Maria Kallio | 161

RAMUS GLENTHØJ & MORTEN NORDHAGEN OTTOSEN, Experiences of War and Nationality in Denmark and Norway, 1807–1815, review by Tim Blanning | 163

PAUL HALLBERG & S. BERTIL OLSSON (eds.), En ostindiefarande fältskärs berättelse: Carl Fredrik Adlers journal från skeppet Prins Carl 1753–56, review by Lisa Hellman | 165

PASI IHALAINEN, MICHAEL BREGNSBO, KARIN SENNEFELT & PATRIK WINTON (eds.),Scandinavia in the Age of Revolution: Nordic Political Cultures, 1740–1820, review by Andreas Hellerstedt | 166

TYGE KROGH, A Lutheran Plague: Murdering to Die in the Eighteenth Century, review by Andreas Hellerstedt | 168

JOUNI KUURNE (ed.), Mikael Hisinger: halki vanhan Euroopan. Matkapäiväkirja 1783–1784, review by Niina Lehmusjärvi | 173

TUIJA LAINE, Carl Fredrik Fredenheim: en nyhumanist och hans klassiska bibliotek, review by Janne Tunturi | 175

VETLE LID LARSEN, 1001 natt: den utrolige historien om to norske slaver i Alger, review by Ketil Fred Hansen | 176

PETER LINDSTRÖM & SVANTE NORRHEM, Flattering Alliances: Scandinavia, Diplomacy, and the Austrian-French Balance of Power, 1648–1740, review by Sophie Holm | 178

OLA MESTAD (ed.), Frihetens forskole: professor Schlegel og eidsvollsmennenes læretid i København, review by Rune Blix Hagen | 180

PAUL KLÉBER MONOD, Solomon’s Secret Arts: The Occult in the Age of Enlightenment, review by Marcus Willén| 183

MARTIN MULSOW, Prekäres Wissen: Eine andere Ideengeschichte der Frühen Neuzeit, review by Jens Bjerring-Hansen | 185

ERIK A. NIELSEN, H. A. Brorson: pietisme, meditation, erotik, review by Helene Grønlien | 187

KRISTIAN H. NIELSEN, MICHAEL HARBSMEIER & CHRISTOPHER J. RIES (eds.), Scientists and Scholars in the Field: Studies in the History of Fieldwork and Expeditions, review by Brita Brenna | 189

LUCIEN NOUIS, De l’infini des bibliothèques au livre unique: L’archive épurée au XVIIIe siècle, review by Marius Warholm Haugen | 191

KAREN OSLUND, Iceland Imagined: Nature, Culture, and Storytelling in the North Atlantic, review by Sumarliði Ísleifsson | 192

SØLVI SOGNER, ”Og skuta lå i Amsterdam…”: et glemt norsk innvandrersamfunn i Amsterdam 1621–1720, review by Finn Erhard Johannessen | 195

BO VAHLNE, Frihetstidens inredningar på Stockholms slott: om bekvämlighetens och skönhetens nivåer, review by Johanna Ilmakunnas | 197

CONTRIBUTORS | 199