Sjuttonhundratal 2013

Nordic Yearbook for Eighteenth-Century Studies

DAVID DUNÉR et al.: Introduction: Ways of Life | 7

ANNA AGNARSDÓTTIR: Iceland in the Eighteenth Century: An Island Outpost of Europe | 11

Iceland in the Eighteenth Century: An Island Outpost of Europe

The aim is to define Iceland’s relationship with Europe during the eighteenth century. Though Iceland, an island in the mid-Atlantic, was geographically isolated from the European continent, it was in most respects an integral part of Europe. Iceland was not much different from western Europe except for the notable lack of towns and a European-style nobility. However, there was a clearly – defined elite and by the end of the eighteenth century urbanisation had become government policy. Iceland was also remote in the sense that the state of knowledge among the Europeans was slight and unreliable. However, in the spirit of the Enlightenment, Danish and French expeditions were sent to Iceland while British scientists began exploring the island with the result that by the early nineteenth century an excellent choice of books was available in the major European languages giving up-to-date accounts of Iceland. On the other hand the Icelanders were growing ever closer to Europe, by the end of the century for instance adopting fashionable European dress. Iceland’s history always followed western trends, its history more or less mirroring that of western Europe.

RANDI SKJELMO: Utdanning av laerere for det nordlige Norge: De tidlige institusjoner i Trondheim 1717-1732 | 39

Educating Teachers for Northern Norway – the Institutions in Trondheim 1717–1732

In this article I will give an account of the seminaries between 1717 and 1732 in the cathedral city of Trondheim, Norway. Key questions that the article seeks to answer are who initiated and supported these seminars, and also how they were organized and how staff and seminarians were recruited. Seminarium Scholasticum was initiated by the Danish Society for promoting Christian knowledge (Misjonskollegiet) in Copenhagen. The seminary was located at the Cathedral school in Trondheim and the seminarians were also students here. The purpose of Seminarium Scholasticum was to educate missionaries, catechists and teachers for the Sami population in the northern county of Finnmark. The seminary also served as a pre-school for the University of Copenhagen. Seminarium Domesticum was a private seminary instigated by Thomas von Westen and located in his home in Trondheim. His wealthy wife, Anna von Westen, assisted him and paid the expenses. The two institutions represented two different educational paths. Whilst the prior qualified for positions as missionaries, catechists and teachers, von Westen’s seminary qualified for post as assistants for catechists and teachers.

GÖRAN RYDÉN: The Enlightenment in Practice: Swedish Travellers and Knowledge about the Metal Trades | 63

The Enlightenment in Practice: Swedish Travellers and Knowledge about the Metal Trades

Ever since the publication of the Encyclopédie, in the decades after mid-eighteenth century, there has been an on-going debate about the implications of the metaphor of enlightenment, mainly based on themes discussed in Diderot’s and d’Alembert’s work. Sadly, however, one major field has been left outside; scholars have dealt with two branches of the tree of knowledge, science and the liberal arts, but ignored the branch of mechanical arts. This article takes a starting-point in the reintroduction of political economy, with division of labour, and technology into an assessment of the Enlightenment. It has the ambition of discussing the process whereby progress became a central feature of eighteenth-century thinking, as well as relating this to a discussion about travelling to other places. It deals with Swedish travellers going to Britain, and central Europe, to view differently organised trades with elaborate division of labour, more skilled artisans, fitted into a commercial economy.

MARKKU KEKÄLÄINEN: ‘I felt a noble shock’: James Boswell in German Princely Courts | 87

Between the Darkness of Barbarism and the Light of Civilization: British Images of the Finn in the Late Eighteenth Century

The article deals with James Boswell’s (1740–1795) attitudes towards the courtly milieu in the context of eighteenth-century British court discourse. The central argument is that, strongly contrary to the anti-court ethos of his intellectual and social milieu, Boswell had an affirmative and enthusiastic attitude towards the court. Moreover, the fact that he was neither an Addisonian moralist ‘spectator’ nor a cynical court aristocrat like Lord Chesterfield, but in many senses a highly affective ‘man of feeling’ of the age, did not diminish the uniqueness of his positive view of court culture. On the one hand, Boswell’s appreciation of the court was connected with his firm monarchism and belief in hereditary rank; on the other hand, he was aesthetically fascinated by the splendour and magnificence of the courtly milieu. His appraisal of the court did not include the common-sense moralism of the moral weeklies or the cynical observations of the aristocratic court discourse; rather his attitude was immediate, emotional, and enthusiastic in the spirit of the cult of sensibility.

MY HELLSING: Hertiginnan, hovet och staden i det gustavianska Stockholm| 103

The Duchess, the Court, and the City in Gustavian Stockholm

This article analyses the everyday urban sociability and the staging of politics of the Swedish duchess Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte in the years around 1790. The cultural and social life of the Gustavian court has been the focus of much scholarly attention. However, the main aim of these studies has been to examine court life as a reflection of Gustavus III’s personality and political ambitions. This article, however, integrates Gustavian court sociability in a broader European pattern by focusing on the monarch’s sister-in-law. It aims to give a detailed account of social practice through a vast selection of the Duchess’s personal remains: her political journal and letters, informal notes to friends, and household accounts showing the sums she spent on charity. It also takes into account royal theatre box subscription lists as a way to identify the composition of the theatre audience. The claim of this article is that the Swedish royal family maintained their authority through their daily urban presence, such as their walks in the public gardens and main streets of Stockholm, their attendance at weekly balls at the Stock Exchange (Börshuset), or their visits to the royal theatres. Through a carefully ritualized sociability, the court preserved their social exclusivity in their urban encounters.

MERETHE ROOS: ”Jeg skriver for tænkende Mænd, der selv maae kunne prøve Aanderne”: Nikolai Lorenz Fallesens tidsskrift for religionslærere (1793-1808)| 126

“I am writing for intellectuals who are able to judge the spirits”: N. F. Fallesen’s Periodical for Teachers in Religion 1793–1808

This article thematises the first periodical for members of the clergy in Denmark- Norway, Nikolai Lorenz Fallesen’s Magazin for Religionslærere, med hensyn til vore Tider (Copenhagen, 1793–1802) (cont. as Theologisk Maanedsskrivt for Fædrelandets Religionslærere [Copenhagen, 1803–1808]), and sheds light on how Fallesen uses this periodical to present ideas typical for late eighteenth-century theology and the philosophy of religion for a new target group of readers. These readers were rural clergymen and pastors who did not normally participate in academic and intellectual discussions. Among what Fallesen enlightened was the idea that moral behaviour could be seen as the true content of Christianity and the consequence of Christian revelation. This, in turn, leads to a religious universalism in which other institutional religions might also be included as legitimate and ”right”. By presenting different institutional religions and emphasising openness as typical for biblical texts, Fallesens periodical addressed the autonome citizen characteristic of the turn of the nineteenth century. This citizen, here: the rural pastor, was expected to use his own intellectual abilities to judge whether or not the religion under consideration could be regarded as good. This judgement was based upon practical matters rather than norms and dogmas.

ANNE-CHRISTINE LØVENTOFT-JESSEN: Kunstneren Jens Juel og det videnskabelige blik på naturen | 145

The Artist Jens Juel and the Scientific Gaze on Nature

The article analyzes a selection of landscape paintings by the Danish artist Jens Juel (1745–1802) in relation to discourses on natural history in the late eighteenth century. Although Juel painted the northern lights, the thunder and the hoar frost, his interest in nature has traditionally been regarded and explained away as superficial. The article challenges this notion by drawing in contemporary discourses on natural history, which provide new perspectives on Juel’s depiction of nature. The biographical fact that Juel was a member of the scientific society Naturhistorie-Selskabet in Copenhagen supports this contextualization and makes it possible to connect the artist more directly with contemporary scientific ideas and scientists. As a result, the article points to a number of hitherto undiscovered scientific references in Juel’s works, which are unearthed and used for analytical purposes.

DISSERTATIONS:

MINNA AHOKAS, Valistus suomalaisessa kirjakulttuurissa 1700-luvulla, review by Heli Rantala | 175

PER PIPPIN ASPAAS, Maximilianus Hell (1720–1792) and the Eighteenth-Century Transits of Venus: A Study of Jesuit Science in Nordic and Central European Contexts, review by László Kontler | 178

HELENE CASTENBRANDT, Rödsot i Sverige 1750–1900: en sjukdoms demografiska och medicinska historia, review by Bodil Persson | 181

MARIUS WARHOLM HAUGEN, Jean Potocki: esthétique et philosophie de l’errance, review by Dominique Triaire | 184

MARKKU KEKÄLÄINEN, James Boswell’s Urban Experience in Eighteenth-Century London, review by Marjo Kaartinen | 186

INGVILD HAGEN KJØRHOLT, Voltaires verdensborgere: en studie av det franske 1700-tallets kosmopolitisme, review by Rebecka Lettevall | 188

RIITTA KOSKINEN, Kartanot ja virkatalot Turun kaupunginarkkitehti Christian Friedrich Schröderin tuotannossa, review by Johanna Ilmakunnas | 192

RIITTA KOSKINEN, Suomalainen kartano: Kustavilaisen ajan säätyläiselämää, review by Johanna Ilmakunnas | 192

JENNIE NELL, Vivat vår Monark! Carl Michael Bellmans panegyrik över Gustaf III 1771–1792, review by Annie Mattsson | 194

ULF NYRÉN, Rätt till jakt: en studie av den svenska jakträtten ca 1600–1789, review by Gunnar Broberg | 197

 

LITERATURE:

SABINE ARNAUD & HELGE JORDHEIM (eds.), Le corps et ses images dans l’Europe du dix-huitième siècle / The Body and Its Images in Eighteenth-Century Europe, review by Sven Björkman | 199

AINA ASKE & MARIA FORNEHEIM (eds.), Västerhavets kulturarv: kulturmøter i skandinavisk periferi, review by Karl-Erik Frandsen | 205

PIERRE-YVES BEAUREPAIRE, KENNETH LOISELLE, JEAN-MARIE MERCIER & THIERRY ZARCONE (eds.), Diffusions et circulations des pratiques maçonniques XVIIIe–XXe siècle, review by Marcus Willén | 207

KLAUS BETTAG & JAN A. M. SNOEK, Quellen der Eckleff ’schen Andreas-Akten, review by Marcus Willén | 209

AUDREY T. CARPENTIER, John Theophilus Desaguliers: A Natural Philosopher and Freemason in Newtonian England, review by Marcus Willén | 210

KNUT DØRUM & HILDE SANDVIK (eds.), Opptøyer i Norge 1750–1850, review by Eyvind Urkedal York | 211

ANDERS ERIKSSON (ed.), Prosten Pihls beskrivning av Nyköping: en handskrift från 1700-talet, review by Gunnar Broberg | 216

OTTO FISCHER & ANN ÖHRBERG (eds.), Metamorphoses of Rhetoric: Classical Rhetoric in the Eighteenth Century, review by Martina Finnskog | 217

BRYNJULV GJERDÅKER, Statstenestemann og ”Almuens Formand”: lensmannsombod og lensmenn i det nordafjelske Noreg ca. 1660–1870, review by Harald Gustafsson | 219

LARS HOLM, Fem uppsatser om Jacob Jonas Björnståhls resa i Europa, review by Gunnar Broberg | 220

HELMUT HÜHN & JAMES VIGUS (eds.), Symbol and Intuition: Comparative Studies in Kantian and Romantic-Period Aesthetics, review by Fredrik Nilsen | 221

RAGNHILD HUTCHISON, In the Doorway to Development: An Enquiry into Market Oriented Structural Changes in Norway ca. 1750–1830, review by Ana Crespo Solana | 222

IMMANUEL KANT, Himlens allmänna naturhistoria och teori eller Essä om beskaffenheten av och det mekaniska ursprunget till hela världsalltet, avhandlade enligt Newtonska grundsatser, review by David Dunér | 225

MICHAIL JURJEVITJ LJUSTROV, Vojna i kultura: russko-sjvedskije literaturnyje paralleli epochi Severnoj vojny, review by David Dunér | 226

MARGIT LØYLAND, Hollendertida i Norge 1550–1750, review by Sølvi Sogner | 228

ELJAS ORRMAN & JYRKI PAASKOSKI (eds.), Vanhan Suomen arkistot – Arkiven från Gamla Finland, review by Ulla Ijäs | 230

MATTIAS PIRHOLT, Metamimesis: Imitation in Goethe’s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre and Early
German Romanticism
, review by Jon Helgasond | 232

MERETHE ROOS, Enlightened Preaching: Balthasar Münter’s Authorship 1772–1793, review by
Françoise Deconinck-Brossard | 233

TORKEL STÅLMARCK, Ostindiefararen Carl Gustav Ekeberg 1716–1784, review by Kenneth Nyberg | 235

STEINAR SUPPHELLEN, Konventikkelplakatens historie 1741–1842, review by Øystein Lydik Idsø Viken | 237

NILS UDDENBERG (ed.), Linné och mentalsjukdomarna: en kommenterad utgåva av Pehr Osbecks anteckningar om psykiatri under Linnés föreläsningar över temat Systema morborum läsåret 1746– 1747, review by David Dunér | 238

KIRSI VAINIO-KORHONEN, Ujostelemattomat: Kätilöiden, synnytysten ja arjen historiaa, review by Magdalena af Hällström | 239

EILIV VINJE & JØRGEN MAGNUS SEJERSTED (eds.), Ludvig Holbergs Naturrett, review by Dag
Michalsen | 241

LARS ERICSON WOLKE, Sjöslag och rysshärjningar: kampen om Östersjön under stora nordiska kriget 1700–1721, review by Bengt Nilsson | 245

CONTRIBUTORS | 247