Sjuttonhundratal 2012

Nordic Yearbook for Eighteenth-Century Studies

DAVID DUNÉR, PER PIPPIN ASPAAS & JOHANNA ILMAKUNNAS: Introduction: Cultural Encounters | 7

KNUT OVE ELIASSEN & ANNE FASTRUP: Det orientalske despotis afvikling i MontesquieusLettres persanes | 12

Montesquieu’s Dismantlement of Oriental Despotism in Persian Letters

Montesquieu’s epistolary novel, Persian Letters, is often presented as a satire of the mores of the French under the reign of Louis XIV, and an early example of what became a well-established literary trope: the de-familiarizing perspective of the foreign visitor. Others have emphasized that the novel’s political horizon is best understood by taking into account Montesquieu’s later work, the Spirit of the Laws, and that the Persian letters anticipates insights that were to be more broadly developed in the author’s chef-d’oeuvre. While acknowledging the relevance and productivity of the latter perspective, the claim of the present work is that it is neither the particularities of France under the absolutist regime of Louis the XIV nor the despotism of the sultans and the shahs of the Orient that make up the novel’s central concern, but rather the demonstration of how despotism, by erasing the crucial political distinction between the domestic and public spaces, not only has nefarious consequences for the freedom and liberty of the citizens, but that it, in the final analysis, has a dramatic demographic impact that undermine the wealth and the power of the very nations in which it is the dominant political form.

LEOS MÜLLER: Svensk sjöfart, neutralitet och det väpnade neutralitetsförbundet 1780-1783 | 39

Swedish Shipping, Neutrality, and the First League of Armed Neutrality, 1780–1783

The purpose of this article is to follow two contradictory perceptions of neutrality
in the political discourses of the mid-eighteenth century. One perception drew
on the philosophy of natural law and the beneficial view of trade and sociability;
here neutrality was perceived as a good and moral basis for peaceful inter-state
relations. The second perception derived from the mercantilist view of international trade as an alternative means of warfare; here neutrality was perceived as a shameless exploitation of warfare. It is argued that the concept of neutrality went through an important development in the period between the Seven Years’ War and the American War of Independence, and that the Danish writer Martin Hübner played an important role in this development. Hübner’s view of neutrality, drawing on both discourses, became embodied indirectly in the declaration of the First League of Armed Neutrality in 1780, composed during the American War of Independence. The League was the joint action of three neutral countries, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, intended to stop the British harassment of neutral trade and shipping. When Sweden joined the League, it acknowledged this new concept of neutrality as part of its foreign policy.

HOLGER WEISS: Det svenska kolonialprojektets komplexa rum: om slaveri under svensk flagg i slutet av 1700-talets karibiska och atlantiska värld | 59

The Complex Space of the Swedish Colonial Project: Slavery under the Swedish Flag in the Late Eighteenth-Century Caribbean and Atlantic World

When Sweden took over Saint Barthélemy in the Caribbean in 1784, the island
was inhabited by French colonists and their slaves. As the island was too small
and barren for large-scale plantations, the Swedish authorities decided to declare
it a free-port, outlined the site for a new town, and issued an invitation to traders
and merchants of any nationality to settle on the island. Within the space of a
few years, a Swedish cosmopolitan town, Gustavia, was in place beside La Campagne, the French-dominated countryside. This essay takes a critical look at the first twenty years of the Swedish era on the island. A special focus is placed on the question of slavery and the coloured division of space on the island. Similar to all other late eighteenth-century Caribbean slave societies, the Swedish island simultaneously contained a hegemonic white space and a dominated and controlled black space. It was a multiracial and multi-ethnic society inhabited by white naturalized citizens and burghers, visiting white foreign merchants and émigrées, second-class semi-citizens comprised of freed slaves and gens de couleur, and African and Creole slaves. While the first two groups enjoyed certain rights, the lives of the latter two groups were controlled and regulated by slave laws and other legal restrictions.

ANSSI HALMESVIRTA: Between the Darkness of Barbarism and the Light of Civilization: British Images of the Finn in the Late Eighteenth Century | 93

Between the Darkness of Barbarism and the Light of Civilization: British Images of the Finn in the Late Eighteenth Century

This article aims to show that it was the British travellers (Coxe, Tooke, Clarke,
et al.) to Finland in the late eighteenth century who discovered Finland for the
British reading public. As they distinguished the Finns as a separate ‘race’ from
the Russians, the Swedes, and the Lapps, they contributed to the proto-racialist
image of them that would become popular in the nineteenth century. Because
Sweden had become an important maritime trading partner (in iron ore, tar, and
timber) to the British, its eastern part, Finland, also became an interesting country to visit en route from Stockholm to Saint Petersburg (or from Saint Petersburg to Stockholm). The travellers were astonished to realize that the Finnish peasants had attained a higher degree of civilization than their Russian counterparts, who were still serfs, and additionally that there were in Finland bourgeois and noble people who had acquired culture and wealth. This image of the Finn as living between the civilized Swedes and ‘backward’ Russians was inherited by the Romantics from the enlightened travellers, and it penetrated later anthropological studies on the ‘races of man’.

HEDVIG MÅRDH: Templet i Mälby | 110

The Temple in Mälby

In the mid 1780s the count, naval officer, and architect Carl August Ehrensvärd
(1745–1800) designed the main building and surrounding gardens at Mälby
estate (Gnesta, Sweden). Ehrensvärd’s close friend, the high-ranking civil servant Johan Gustaf von Carlson (1743–1801), was the owner of the estate who
commissioned the project. A number of buildings were erected in the ambitiously
planned landscape garden, among them a Greek temple, a full-scale reconstruction of the Temple of Theseus in Athens (today known as the Temple of Hephaestus). This temple was one of the first examples of pure neoclassical architecture in Sweden. The aim of the article is to place the temple in a contemporary philosophical, literary, and artistic context, as well as to draw some conclusions about its erection, design and social function. Because the building has long since disappeared, the source material available today includes guidebooks, sketches, letters, and research conducted in the fields of literature, art, and gender studies.

DISSERTATIONS:

MIKAEL AHLUND: Landskapets röster: studier i Elias Martins bildvärld, review by Anna Lena Lindberg | 130

MAGNUS ANDERSSON: Omvälvningarnas tid: handelshuset Ekman i Göteborg på en europeisk kreditmarknad 1790-1820, review by Kristina Lilja | 135

CAROLINA BROWN: Liksom en herdinna: litterära teman i svenska kvinnoporträtt under 1700-talet, review by Johanna Ilmakunnas | 136

ØYVIND GJEMS FJELDBU: Éducation et images mentales dans l’Émile de Jean-Jacques Rousseau: étude d’un modèle cognitif et rhétorique, review by Charles T. Wolfe | 140

MAGNUS LINNARSSON: Postgång på växlande villkor: det svenska postväsendets organisation under stormaktstiden, review by Mats Bladh | 144

JAKOB MALIKS: Vilkår for offentlighet: sensur, økonomi og transformasjonen av det offentlige rom i Danmark- Norge 1730–1770, review by Håkon Andreas Evju | 146

DANIEL MÖLLER: Fänad i helgade grifter: svensk djurgravpoesi 1670–1760, review by Anna Cullhed | 151

ANNA NILSSON: Lyckans betydelse: sekularisering, sensibilisering och individualisering i svenska skillingtryck 1750–1850, review by Andreas Hellerstedt | 156

CLAES G. OLSSON: Omsorg & kontroll: en handikapphistorisk studie 1750–1930: föreställningar och levnadsförhållanden, review by Gunnar Broberg | 158

OSMO PEKONEN: La rencontre des religions autour du voyage de L’abbé Réginald Outhier en Suède en 1736–1737, review by Martin Wåhlberg | 159

MONA RAUTELIN, En förutbestämd sanning: barnamord och delaktighet i 1700-talets Finland belysta genom kön, kropp och social kontroll, review by Karin Hassan Jansson | 163

STEFAN RIMM, Vältalighet och mannafostran: retorikutbildningen i svenska skolor och gymnasier 1724–1807, review by Nils Ekedahl | 166

MARTIN WÅHLBERG, La scène de musique dans le roman du dix-huitième siècle, review by Gina Rivera | 170

RIKARD WINGÅRD, Att sluta från början: tidigmodern läsning och folkbokens receptionsestetik, review by Iris Ridder | 175
LITERATURE:

TORKILD BAKKEN, BRITA BRENNA, JOHN PETER COLLETT & al., Aspects of Johan Ernst Gunnerus’ Life and Work, review by Ernst Bjerke | 179

GILLES BANCAREL (éd.), Raynal et ses réseaux, review by Sven Björkman | 181

CARIN BERGSTRÖM, Självständig prinsessa: Sophia Albertina 1753–1829, review by My Hellsing | 187

RIC BERMAN, The Grand Architects: Political Change and the Scientific Enlightenment 1714–1740, review by Marcus Willén | 188

GABRIELLE-ÉMILIE LE TONNELIER DE BRETEUIL, MARQUISE DU CHÂTELET-LOMOND, Examens
de la Bible
, review by Sven Björkman | 190

CHARLOTTA DOHLVIK, JENNY JOHANSSON & CHRISTIAN PENALVA (red.), 1700-talets Göteborg, review by Brita Planck | 194

VIDAR ENEBAKK & NILS VOJE JOHANSEN, Christopher Hansteens annus mirabilis: reisen til London og Paris 1819, review by Per Pippin Aspaas | 196

PETER FORSSKÅL, Thoughts on Civil Liberty: Translation of the Original Manuscript with Background, review by Matthew Norris | 197

JENS GLEBE-MØLLER, I kamp mod dumhed og hykleri: om oplysningsmanden general W. H. von Schmettau (1719–85), review by Rolv Nøtvik Jakobsen | 199

STINA HANSSON, Svensk bröllopsdiktning under 1600- och 1700-talen: renässansrepertoarernas framväxt, blomstring och tillbakagång, review by Daniel Möller | 200

ALEXANDRA HEIDLE & JAN A. M. SNOEK (eds.), Women’s Agency and Ritual in Mixed and Female Masonic Orders; JAN A. M. SNOEK, Initiating Women in Freemasonry: The Adoption Rite, review by Marcus Willén | 205

THOMAS IHRE, Abraham Bäck: mannen som reformerade den svenska sjukvården, review by Gunnar Broberg | 208

TEEMU IKONEN, 1700-luvun eurooppalaisen kirjallisuuden ensyklopedia eli Don Quijoten perilliset, review by Sanna Nyqvist | 209

TEEMU KESKISARJA, Kyynelten kallio: kertomuksia seksistä ja väkivallasta, review by Mona Rautelin | 211

GÖSTA KJELLIN, Sissi-Jaakko: en klassresa i svenskt 1700-tal. Med ett slutkapitel om Fru Johanna och klassresans sista bit av Johanna Enckell, review by Juha-Matti Granqvist | 215

MARGUS LAIDRE, The Great Northern War in Estonia: The Trials of Dorpat 1700–1708, review by Bengt Nilsson | 217

MICHAEL H. LINDGREN, Christopher Polhems testamente: berättelsen om ingenjören, entreprenören och pedagogen som ville förändra Sverige, review by Thomas Kaiserfeld | 219

ANDREAS ÖNNERFORS & ROBERT COLLINS (eds.), Freemasonry and Fraternalism in Eighteenth-Century Russia, review by Marcus Willén | 221

MATTIAS PIRHOLT (red.), Constructions of German Romanticism: Six Studies / Konstruktionen der deutschen Romantik: Sechs Studien, review by Jon Helgason | 223

MARSHA KEITH SCHUCHARD, Emanuel Swedenborg, Secret Agent on Earth and in Heaven: Jacobites, Jews, and Freemasons in Early Modern Sweden, review by Marcus Willén | 225

KARIN SENNEFELT, Politikens hjärta: medborgarskap, manlighet och plats i frihetstidens Stockholm, review by Andreas Hellerstedt | 227

TORGRIM SØRNES, Uten nåde: de henrettede i Norge 1783–1814, review by Erling Sandmo |
230

NILS JOHAN STOA, Kjødets lyst: fortellinger om synd og straff, review by Øystein Lydik Idsø Viken | 231

ADRIAN VELICU, Civic Catechisms and Reason in the French Revolution, review by Victoria Höög | 233

KUSTAA H. J. VILKUNA, Djävulens krig: förrädaren Gustav Lillbäck och stora nordiska kriget 1700–1721, review by Kasper Kepsu | 234

MARTIN WÅHLBERG, Opplysningens sorte får: Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778), review by Espen Schaanning | 236
CONTRIBUTORS | 239