Nordic Yearbook for Eighteenth-Century Studies
DAVID DUNÉR, PASI IHALAINEN & PER PIPPIN ASPAAS: Inledning / Introduction / Innledning
RANDI LISE DAVENPORT: The Changing Shapes of Knowledge in Spain 1627–1726: FromDreams and Discourses to Universal Critical Theater | 16
The Changing Shapes of Knowledge in Spain 1627–1726: From Dreams and Discourses to Universal Critical Theater
This article illustrates the changing shapes of knowledge in Spain in the period spanning from the Baroque (ca. 1600–1680) to the pre-Enlightenment (ca. 1730). Scepticism and the dichotomies engaño – desengaño (illusion – disillusion) andser – parecer (reality – appearances) were at the heart of the Baroque obsession with the foundations of knowledge, which culminated in an epistemological crisis. In the pre-Enlightenment, epistemological preoccupations were directed towardserror instead of desengaño, notably in the writings of the Benedictine monk Benito Jerónimo Feijoo (1676–1764), who was a key figure in the divulgation of the ‘new science’ and ‘new philosophy’ in Spain. The epistemic value of the concept desengaño is examined here by contrasting Feijoo’s essay on philosophical scepticism in his Teatro Crítico Universal. Discursos varios en todo género de materias, para desengaño de errores comunes (Universal Critical Theater. Varied discourses on all kinds of matters to the disillusion of common errors, 1726–1739) with the use of scepticism in the Baroque author Francisco de Quevedo’s Sueños y discursos de verdades descubridoras de abusos, vicios y engaños, en todos los oficios y estados del mundo (Dreams and discourses on truths revealing abuses, vices and deceptions in all the professions and estates of the world) published a hundred years earlier (1627).
VILLE SARKAMO: Honour, Masculinity and Corporality in the Officer Corps of Early Eighteenth-Century Sweden | 32
Honour, Masculinity and Corporality in the Officer Corps of Early Eighteenth-Century Sweden
Military honour and physical commitment to serve king and fatherland played a central role in the ideals of the army of Charles XII of Sweden. These ideals were formed within a culture in which the role of the warrior, dictated by a code of honour, was constantly challenged. My main empirical primary sources consist of the archivale records of the Swedish Diet, which included Placement Committee records from the Diet of 1723. An honourable man had the right to a livelihood and a respectable position in society. My aim is to show that, in order to obtain such a position, a military man had to present himself as someone who had offered his body in the service of his king and country. An appeal to one’s merits in battle was the best way of defending a claim to a post, because bravery in combat was the most respected virtue in military life. Those officers who had clear proof of their bravery, especially in the form of combat wounds, were in the best position. In this sense, honour and the body were closely linked.
JOHANNA AKUJÄRVI: … til Rusin-Strutar och Tortebotnar: Översättningars nytta enligt förord
till svenska översättningar av antik litteratur under 1700-talets första hälft | 50
For candy cones and layer cakes: The use of translations according to Swedish translators of classical literature from the first fifty years of the 18th century.
This is a study of prefaces and dedications to Swedish translations of Greek and Roman literature from the first fifty years of the eighteenth century. The introductory paratexts of this period are highly homogenous. Most cover the following five topoi: the importance of the chosen text is specified; the text and author are introduced; the usefulness of the translation is discussed; the principles of translation are touched upon; and, in conclusion, translators anticipate and try to deflect criticism of their work. Not only are the same topoifound in most translatory prefaces and dedications, but are moreover often filled with very similar arguments. The focus of this study is on the most central topos, that of the usefulness of the translation. As a rule, during this period translators tended toward utilitarian arguments to justify their translations. The use could be argued (1) to be the moral value of the text, (2) to help students to learn Latin and, to a lesser extent, Greek, (3) to make the subject-matter of the texts available to readers with no Greek or Latin, or (4) to further the development of the Swedish language and poetry. These utilitarian arguments are illustrated with quotations from the translatory paratexts and discussed with reference to contemporary debates.
FRANZ REITINGER: Voltaire’s Valet: The Career of Sebastian G. Longchamps from Servant to
Map Publisher | 74
Voltaire’s Valet: The Career of Sebastian G. Longchamps from Servant to Map Publisher
Sebastian G. Longchamps (1718–1793) is a well-established figure among the variety of minds who gathered around Voltaire. Longchamps’s recollections are the major surviving source of information for Voltaire’s Cirey period. Given the immense body of literature dedicated to Voltaire’s life and work, however, no serious attempt to enquire into the disappearance of his long-term ‘shadow’ has been made. This has led to the paradoxical situation that Longchamp’s, or more accurately, Longchamps’s personality has been split into two identities. Literary scholars have long been familiar with the Memoires of Voltaire’s servant Longchamp. Map historians, in turn, have come across numerous maps by a somewhat obscure publisher named Longchamps. The confusion was made complete by the uncertainties caused from the different versions of Longchamps’s first and last names. At the root of this confusion was a legal investigation instituted by Voltaire’s niece, Madame Denis, which, although only a short anecdote in Voltaire’s biography, had a significant impact on Longchamps’s life. This article attempts to take a closer look at the metamorphosis that Longchamps’s personality underwent in order to highlight some of his principal motives, incentives and constraints.
ANNE ERIKSEN: Making Facts from Stones: Gerhard Schøning and the Cathedral of Trondheim
Making Facts from Stones: Gerhard Schøning and the Cathedral of Trondheim
In 1762, the historian and antiquary Gerhard Schøning published a large work on the Cathedral of Trondheim. Originally the shrine of Norway’s patron saint and christening king, Saint Olav, the building had suffered decay since the Reformation. In the eighteenth century, large parts of the medieval structure lay in ruins. Schøning’s aim was to reveal the ancient glory of the Cathedral—and, implicitly, of the nation. His meticulous work gained him a still lasting scholarly reputation. While antiquarian studies normally were occupied with documents, monuments, inscriptions and other remains that could give genealogical information about princes and nobility, Schøning’s work is distinguished by the attention given to the physical structure of the building. Even if Schøning earned great renown as a historian, the article argues that there are important affinities between his ways of producing knowledge about the cathedral and the new natural history. By the means of systematic observation and careful description, Schøning ‘dissects’ the different parts of the building, making facts from stones.
ANNE FASTRUP & KNUT OVE ELIASSEN: Drømmen om Sydhavet: Biopolitik og seksualitet i
Denis Diderots Supplément au voyage de Bougainville | 123
The Dream of the Pacific: Bio-Politics and Sexuality in Denis Diderot’s Supplément au voyage de Bougainville
An important issue in the economic debates of the eighteenth century was the concern that the advanced Europeans nations were facing a decline in population. It was assumed that this would have considerable consequences for the economic and military strength of countries like France and England. The idea that the decline was an effect of the European countries’ advanced state of civilisation was widespread; accordingly, explorers like James Cook and Louis Antoine de Bougainville were eager to examine the ways in which the societies and cultures they encountered organised sexual reproduction. Informed by the travelers’ accounts, and recognising the possible insights these offered for the challenges France was facing, Denis Diderot’s Supplément au voyage de Bougainvilleanalyses and discusses the sexual mores of the inhabitants of Tahiti. Taking as its starting point the oblique and slightly idiosyncratic way in which the French philosopher addresses the issue—in the form of an apocryphal “supplement” to Bougainville’s account supposedly written by the explorer himself—this essay analyses the way in which Diderot transforms an ethnographic reflection on Polynesian culture into an analysis of the pathologies of his contemporary France from the double perspective of economy and ethics.
JONAS AHLSKOG: The Political Economy of Colonisation: Carl Bernhard Wadström’s Case for
Abolition and Civilisation | 146
The Political Economy of Colonisation: Carl Bernhard Wadström’s Case for Abolition and Civilisation
This article is an analysis of the Swedish abolitionist and Swedenborgian Carl Bernhard Wadström’s (1746–1799) writings in the British anti-slavery debate in the years between 1788 and 1795. Previous historical scholarship has seen Wadström primarily as a Swedenborgian visionary on a quest for religious fulfilment in Africa. An alternative perspective on Wadström’s writings is offered in this article by highlighting his comparatively overlooked polemical publications and Parliamentary testimonies in the British anti-slavery debate. Instead of treating Wadström’s writings and colonial plans as manifestations of his Swedenborgian dreams, they are reassessed as contributions to the contemporary anti-slavery debate. The focus is on how Wadström participated and argued in this debate in order to show the ideological tenets underlying his views. Wadström is linked to the Scottish Enlightenment discourse by showing how he uses the concepts of classical political economy in his argumentation for the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade. Through this alternative reading of Wadström’s writings, it is possible to gain another entry point into the complex and motley character of late eighteenth-century political thought in Northern Europe.
PETRI KARONEN: The Peace Treaty of Fredrikshamn and its Aftermath in Sweden and
Finland | 168
The Peace Treaty of Fredrikshamn and its Aftermath in Sweden and Finland
This article analyses the Peace Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Hamina in Finnish) and its consequences in Sweden and Finland. The Russians set strict preconditions for the commencement of peace negotiations with the Swedes in the summer of 1809. These conditions were realized almost in toto in the final peace treaty, which consisted of just twenty-one articles. In addition to regulations directly related to the ending of hostilities, the main provisions of the agreement entailed huge territorial losses for Sweden, strictly defining the regions it was to cede to Russia, the most important of which was Finland. Sweden was also enjoined to give up its alliance with Britain and to join the Continental Blockade. Furthermore, the peace treaty laid down provisions for securing the position of both Finns and Swedes as subjects in the new situation, defined measures to ensure the continued functioning of the economy, and stipulated strict provi- sions for the protection of private property. The latter were very significant, especially with regard to the legitimacy of the administration, the pacification of society, and the safeguarding of the infrastructures in both Finland and Sweden. The post-war resumption of peace was not easy for either the Finns or the Swedes. However, the problems caused by the peace treaty were very different on the two sides of the Gulf of Bothnia. The problems in Finland were easier to solve because they were more concrete. The Grand Duchy of Finland, which was born out of the treaty, was permitted to maintain the existing Swedish legislative, social and local administrative framework, and a new central governmental machinery was created on top of it. In Sweden, the most important problems attending the return to peace (which could also be described as a ‘crisis of peace’) included the difficult question of the succession along with serious internal and economic issues. However, the most serious worry concerned the re-establishment and maintenance of the legitimacy of the government in the new situation.
JANICKE ANDERSSON, Konsten att leva länge: föreställningar om livets förlängning i handböcker 1700–1930, anm. av Gunnar Broberg | 184
ANN-SOFIE ARVIDSSON, Makten och döden: stat och kyrka möter svenska efterlevande under ett långt 1700-tal, anm. av Gunnar Granberg | 185
MATS BERGLUND, Massans röst: upplopp och gatubråk i Stockholm 1719–1848, anm. av Mathias Cederholm | 189
JOSEF ESKHULT, Andreas Norrelius’ Latin Translation of Johan Kemper’s Hebrew Commentary on Matthew: Edited with Introduction and Philological Commentary, anm. av Carl P. E. Springer | 191
ANDREAS HELLERSTEDT, Ödets teater: ödesföreställningar i Sverige vid 1700-talets början, anm. av David Dunér | 193
ANN IGHE, I faderns ställe: genus, ekonomisk förändring och den svenska förmyndarinstitutionen ca 1700–1860, anm. av Agneta Helmius | 197
ROGER JACOBSSON, Typographic man: medielandskap i förändring – studier i provinsens tryckkultur, anm. av Gunnel Furuland | 199
JAN MISPELAERE, Guldmynt eller äpple: straffrättsligt ansvar för barn och ungdomar i Sverige och Nederländerna 1590–1800, anm. av Roddy Nilsson | 201
MATHIAS PERSSON, Det nära främmande: svensk lärdom och politik i en tysk tidning, 1753–1792, anm. av Nils Eriksson | 204
PÄIVI MARIA PIHLAJA, Tiedettä pohjantähden alla: pohjoisen tutkimus ja Ruotsin tiedeseurojen suhteet Ranskan 1700-luvulla, anm. av Peter Stadius | 207
ANNA-MARIA RIMM, Elsa Fougt, Kungl. boktryckare: aktör i det litterära systemet ca 1780–1810, anm. av Rikard Wingård | 209
DAVID DENIS ALDRIDGE, Admiral Sir John Norris and the British Naval Expeditions to the Baltic Sea 1715–1727, anm. av Bengt Nilsson | 211
HÅKON WITH ANDERSEN, BRITA BRENNA, MAGNE NJÅSTAD & ASTRID WALE, Aemula Lauri:
The Royal Norwegian Society of Science and Letters, 1760–2010, anm. av Liv Bliksrud. | 212
GUDRUN ANDERSSON, Stadens dignitärer: den lokala elitens status och maktmanifestation i Arboga 1650–1770, anm. av Johanna Ilmakunnas | 214
CARIN BERGSTRÖM, Stina Piper: grevinna i 1700-talets Sverige, anm. av Margareta Björkman
VICTOR EDMAN, Sjuttonhundratalet som svenskt ideal: moderna rekonstruktioner av historiska miljöer, anm. av Anna Ingemark Milos | 220
NILS ERIKSSON, ”Icke har jag varit overksam”: en biografi över Martin Georg Wallenstråle, anm. av Gunnar Broberg | 221
NICOLE EUSTACE, Passion is the Gale: Emotion, Power, and the Coming of the American Revolution, anm. av Eva Joelsson | 223
JULIE CANDLER HAYES, Translation, Subjectivity, and Culture in France and England, 1600–1800, anm. av Johanna Akujärvi | 225
AARON ISAAC, Minnen: ett judiskt äventyr i svenskt 1700-tal, anm. av My Hellsing | 230
NILS VOJE JOHANSEN, PER MAGNUS JØRGENSEN & BJØRN RAGNVALD PETTERSEN, Christian
Frederik Gottfred Bohr: mannen som opplyste Bergen, anm. av Ernst Bjerke | 231
LENA JONSON & TAMARA TORSTENDAHL SALYTJEVA (red.), Poltava: krigsfångar och kulturutbyte, anm. av David Dunér | 233
THOMAS KAISERFELD, Krigets salt: salpetersjudning som politik och vetenskap i den svenska skattemilitära staten under frihetstid och gustaviansk tid, anm. av Mikko Huhtamies | 235
ULLA KÖLVING & OLIVIER COURCELLE (red.), Émilie Du Châtelet: éclairages et documents nouveaux, anm. av Sven Björkman | 238
KJELL LEKEBY (utg.), Gustaviansk mystik: alkemister, kabbalister, magiker, andeskådare, astrologer och skattgrävare i den esoteriska kretsen kring G. A. Reuterholm, hertig Carl och hertiginnan Charlotta 1776–1803, anm. av Gunnar Broberg | 245
MARTIN LINDE, I fädrens spår?: bönder och överhet i Dalarna under 1700-talet, anm. av Andreas Hellerstedt | 246
CARL VON LINNÉ, Clavis medicinae duplex: medicinens tvenne nycklar, anm. av Urban Örneholm | 248
MIRABEAU, Erotika Biblion, anm. av Sven Björkman | 249
ANDERS MORTENSEN (red.), Litteraturens värden, anm. av Jon Helgason | 252
HANS NORMAN & ERIK WALLSTRÖM, Johan Puke: skeppsgossen som blev generalamiral och statsråd 1751–1816, anm. av Elisabeth Reuterswärd | 254
GUDRUN NYBERG, Doktor Carlander i praktiken: läkekonst 1793–1814, anm. av Tove Paulsson
Holmberg | 256
MARY SPONBERG PEDLEY, The Commerce of Cartography: Making and Marketing Maps in Eighteenth-Century France and England, anm. av Marie-Theres Federhofer | 258
GUNNAR SIVERTSEN & EIVIND TJØNNELAND (red.), Holberg, anm. av John Brumo | 259
MARIA SJÖBERG, Kvinnor i fält 1550–1850, anm. av Anu Lahtinen | 261
OSKAR SJÖSTRÖM, Fraustadt 1706: ett fält färgat rött, anm. av Sverker Oredsson | 264
MARJA TAUSSI SJÖBERG, Släkten, pengarna och Caroline Gother: en grosshandlarsläkt i Stockholm under tre generationer 1740–1836, anm. av Brita Planck | 266
CHARLOTTA WOLFF, Noble Conceptions of Politics in Eighteenth-Century Sweden (ca 1740–1790), anm. av Bo Lindberg | 267
HANS ERIK AARSET, Gjenreiste verdener: senbarokk musikkdramatikk som tverrestetisk scenekunst: Vivaldi – Händel – Rameau, anm. av Jørgen Langdalen | 269