Sjuttonhundratal 2009

Nordic Yearbook for Eighteenth-Century Studies

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Innehåll:

JONAS NORDIN: Inledning | 3

PASI IHALAINEN: Introduction | 5

MARTIN OLIN: Tessinarna i Venedig | 7

The Tessins in Venice

Foreign royalty and other travelers visiting Venice in the early eighteenth century encountered a flourishing of the arts. This vibrant artistic life could be transposed to new settings, as a number of Venetian painters worked for courts north of the Alps. When the statesman and connoisseur Carl Gustaf Tessin, Swedish Ambassador to Vienna, visited Venice in 1736, it was with the intention of hiring a decorative painter for the new royal palace in Stockholm. His first choice was Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, but his services proved to be too costly for the Swedes. Tessin did, however, buy art works, among them easel paintings by Tiepolo, Giuseppe Nogari and Francesco Zuccarelli. Anton Maria Zanetti helped Tessin survey the artistic landscape of his city and later became his agent. Carl Gustaf Tessin was not the first Tessin in Venice. His father and grandfather had also visited and documented Venetian architecture in drawings and notes. Marble floors in Venetian buildings left such a lasting impression on Nicodemus Tessin the Elder that he incorporated their patterns in his floor designs for Drottningholm Palace. In his travel notes from 1688, Nicodemus Tessin the Younger is critical of Venetian architecture, but writes enthusiastically about the city’s theatre and civic life.

KRISTINA FJELKESTAM: Den sentimentala romanen och kampen om medborgarskap: Rousseaus Julie och Staëls Delphine | 22

The sentimental novel and the struggle for citizenship: Rousseau’s Julieand Staël’s Delphine

The tragic fates of a great number of women in sentimental novels of the eighteenth century can be viewed against the background of classic liberal theory. They provide examples of how individual freedom and restraint in the name of common good can be reconciled. Faced with the impossible choice between a life guided by the principle of love and that of virtue, women often choose self-sacrifice as a means of preserving a sense of individuality in the face of the demands of public universality. The epistolary novels, Julie ou La Nouvelle Héloïse (1761) of Jean Jacques Rousseau and the Delphine (1802) of Germaine de Staël, present two rather different treatments of this problem. Rousseau’s Julie is a woman whose unquenchable desire transforms her into a prototype of female unreliability not worthy of societal recognition. Staël’s Delphine, in turn, unmasks a ruthless and unprincipled society which prohibits her from becoming its full-fledged member.

TIMO KAITARO: ”Manuscrit de Mr Dangicourt”: système métaphysique néantiste d’un disciple de Leibniz | 40

Dangicourt’s Manuscript: The metaphysical system of nothingness from a disciple of Leibniz

The collection of clandestine philosophical manuscripts at the Helsinki University Library contains, among other typical seventeenth and early eighteenth century texts, an exchange of letters between Pierre Dangicourt, and Alphonse Des Vignoles (1725−1726). Both belong to the circle of thinkers close to the Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Starting from some mathematical conjectures concerning the incommensurability of the sides and the diagonal of a geometrical square, Dangicourt develops a metaphysical system according to which ‘original material’ (la matière originale) of the universe is ‘nothingness’ (néant) and criticises the view according to which the universe consists of extended and existing composite parts. Des Vignoles presents a criticism of Dangicourt’s ideas. In a letter to Dangicourt, Leibniz also presents criticisms of Dangcourt’s system by insisting on the fictional nature of mathematical abstractions.

LIISA STEINBY: The Rehabilitation of Myth: Enlightenment and Romanticism in Johann Gottfried Herder’s Vom Geist der Ebräischen Poesie | 54

The Rehabilitation of Myth: Enlightenment and Romanticism in Johann Gottfried Herder’s Vom Geist der Ebräischen Poesie

In literary, cultural and historical study of mythology, Johann Gottfried Herder is often portrayed as the bridge between the Enlightenment and the Romantic age. Myths for Herder were not only material for poetry, but the essential content of religion. Herder’s new understanding of myth and religion did not, however, signify a rejection of the Enlightenment principle of rationality. On the contrary, this understanding expanded and transformed his understanding of rationality. Herder regarded man’s mythopoetic activity as a genuine and natural form of man’s cognitive appropriation of the world. The personification of natural forces in the cultural creation of gods did not denote a return to irrationalism, but an extended form of rationality. According to Herder, the Bible had to be read as a human mythopoetic creation. The Old Testament, which depicts the special relation of God to His people, was in Herder’s Vom Geist der ebräischen Poesie(1782–1783) the result of a poetic worldview characteristic of nomadic societies. Herder did question the validity of the Old Testament as a true source of religion and its usefulness even for modern man. Mythology did not have to be rejected as untrue imagination. Old Testament monotheism could be related to Spinoza’s pantheism and the Law of Moses could be seen as a precursor of the modern constitutional tradition.

VILLE LÄHDE: Rousseau’s Natural Man as the Critic of Urbanised Society | 80

Rousseau’s Natural Man as the Critic of Urbanised Society

Rousseau’s description of the pure state of nature and the natural man in hisDiscours sur l’Origine et les Fondements de l’Inégalité parmi les Hommes (1755) has been a controversial topic in Rousseau studies. Natural man has no stable human relationships, language or developed reason, and does not recognise other humans as akin to him. How is it possible to reconcile Rousseau’s views on the pure state of nature with his speculative history of humanity? How could mankind even begin to develop? Why did Rousseau create such a seemingly disharmonious and disagreeable construct? This article introduces a new strategy of interpretation. Instead of proposing a single interpretation of the pure state of nature, proposes to view Rousseau’s understanding of human nature as a literary device which allowed him to address many questions at once. His insistence on the solitude and ignorance of natural human beings is examined as a part of his critique of other philosophers. This, however, does not explain another tension within the depiction of the pure state of nature. Sometimes natural human beings are ignorant, incapable of learning or surpassing their instincts, but, at other times, they seem very smart and resourceful. This article shows that the latter sections of his work imply a critique of contemporary societies. In these sections, Rousseau introduces his analysis of urban life.

Meddelanden:

JONAS NORDIN: Kungens fristad: Gustav III:s dokumenterade besök på Haga enligt hovförtäringsräkenskaperna. | 96

Avhandlingar:

JOHANNA AMINOFF-WINBERG, På flykt i eget land: internflyktingar i Sverige under stora nordiska kriget, anm. av Peter Ericsson. | 102

KARL AXELSSON, The Sublime: Precursors and British Eighteenth-Century Conceptions, rev. by Mats Malm. | 103

ROBERT CALLERGÅRD, An Essay on Thomas Reid’s Philosophy of Science, anm. av Andreas Hellerstedt. | 107

ELISABET GÖRANSSON, Letters of a Learned Lady: Sophia Elisabeth Brenner’s Correspondence, with an Edition of her Letters to and from Otto Sperling the Younger, rev. by Elena Dahlberg. | 108

MATS HAYEN, Stadens puls: en tidsgeografisk studie av hushåll och vardagsliv i Stockholm, 1760–1830, anm. av Jessica Parland-von Essen. | 110

JON HELGASON, Hjärtats skrifter: en brevkulturs uttryck i korrespondensen mellan Anna Louisa Karsch och Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim, anm. av Tilda Maria Forselius. | 111

BENNY JACOBSSON, Den sjunde världsdelen: västgötar och Västergötland 1646–1771: en identitetshistoria, anm. av Peter Sjökvist. | 115

NINA JAVETTE KOEFOED, Besovede kvindfolk og ukærlige barnefædre: køn, ret og sædelighed i 1700-tallets Danmark, anm. av Marie Lindstedt Cronberg. | 116

MARIE LÖWENDAHL, Min allrabästa och ömmaste vän! Kvinnors brevskrivning under svenskt 1700-tal, anm. av Agneta Helmius. | 118

ERIK MAGNUSSON, Gränsöverskridande koordination: syntaktisk förändring i äldre svenska, anm. av David Håkansson. | 120

SOILI-MARIA OLLI, Visioner av världen: hädelse och djävulspakt i justitierevisionen 1680–1789, anm. av Mikael Pettersson. | 121

ODILE RICHARD-PAUCHET, Diderot dans les Lettres à Sophie Volland : une esthétique épistolaire, anm. av Sven Björkman. | 125

HEDVIG SCHÖNBÄCK, De svenska städernas begravningsplatser 1770–1830: arkitektur, sanitet och det sociala rummet, anm. av Gunnar Broberg. | 127

HENRIKA TANDEFELT, Konsten att härska: Gustaf III inför sina undersåtar, anm. av Patrik Winton. | 130

FREDRIK THISNER, Militärstatens arvegods: officerstjänstens socialreproduktiva funktion i Sverige och Danmark ca 1720–1800, anm. av Ville Sarkamo. | 133

Litteratur:

MIKAEL ALM & BRITT-INGER JOHANSSON (red.), Scripts of Kingship: Essays on Bernadotte and Dynastic Formation in an Age of Revolution, anm. av Patrik Lundell. | 135

BRITTA ANDERSEN & PERNILLE ROHOLT (red.), Byens adelsgårde og palæer: Norden 1720 –1800, anm. av Sabrina Norlander Eliasson. | 136

JAN ANDERSEN, Poul Hansen Egede – en grønlandsforsker i 1700-tallet, anm. av Allan Sortkær. | 137

MICHAEL BREGNSBO, Caroline Mathilde: magt och skæbne, anm. av Mikael Alm. | 139

ANNE ERIKSEN, ANDERS JOHANSEN, SIV ELLEN KRAFT & ERLING SANDMO (red.),Kulturanalyse: en teksthistorie, anm. av Gunnar Broberg. | 140

ANNE ERIKSEN, Topografenes verden: fornminner og fortidsforståelse, anm. av Mattias Legnér. | 141

JOHN PETER COLLETT & BÅRD FRYDENLUND (red.), Christianias handelspatrisiat: en elite i 1700-tallets Norge, anm. av Ernst Bjerke. | 142

JENS GLEBE-MØLLER, Struensees vej till Skafottet: fornuft og åbenbaring i Oplysningstiden, anm. av David Hallbeck. | 143

JOHNNY HAGBERG (red.), Jesper Swedberg – en antologi, anm. av Inge Jonsson. | 144

CLAS FREDRIK HORNSTEDT, Brev från Batavia: en resa till Ostindien 1782–1786, anm. av David Dunér. | 146

PASI IHALAINEN, Protestant nations redefined: Changing perceptions of national identity in the rhetoric of the English, Dutch and Swedish public churches, 1685–1772, anm. av Carola Nordbäck. | 147

KIRSI VAINIO-KORHONEN, Sophie Creutzin aika: aateliselämää 1700-luvun Suomessa, och Carina Burman, Den finländska Sapfo: Catharina Charlotta Swedenmarcks liv och verk, anm. av Henrika Tandefelt. | 152

ELLEN KREFTING & ANNE BEATE MAURSETH (red.), Mennesket: arven fra opplysningstiden, anm. av Christine Quarfood. | 153

JÜRGEN LUH, Kriegskunst in Europa 1650–1800, anm. av Oskar Sjöström. | 155

KÄRIN NICKELSEN, Draughtsmen, Botanists and Nature: the Construction of Eighteenth-Century Botanical Illustrations, anm. av Gunilla Törnvall. | 156

MAGNUS OLAUSSON (red.), Alexander Roslin, anm. av Margareta Nisser-Dalman. | 157

CARL RENMARCK, Plurima Lingvæ Gothicæ Rudera, anm. av Lars Holm. | 158

EDVARD CARLESON & CARL FREDRIK VON HÖPKEN, Beskrifning öfwer resan till Ephesus och Scalanova, anm. av Joachim Östlund. | 160

HELENE SCHMITZ, NILS UDDENBERG & PIA ÖSTENSSON, System och passion: Linné och drömmen om Naturens ordning, anm. av Kenneth Nyberg. | 160

J. E. O. SCREEN, The Army in Finland During the Last Decades of Swedish Rule (1770–1809), anm. av Jyrki Paasikoski. | 162

THORD SILVERBARK, Doktor Hasselquists resa: Linnélärjungen i Mellersta Östern 1749–1752, anm. av Andreas Hellerstedt. | 163

JYRKI SIUKONEN, Mies palavassa hatussa: professori Johan Welinin maailma, anm. av Päivi Maria Pihlaja. | 164

ANDRÉ SWANSTRÖM, Mystiker, präster och väckelsens arvingar: studier kring den österbottniska separatismen, anm. av Harry Lenhammar. | 165

JANIKE SVERDRUP UGELSTAD, Thi han blev en kunstmaler: Peder Aadnes og hans billedverden, anm. av Camilla Christin Nedreaas Haukedal. | 166

WILLIAM URBAN, Bayonets for Hire: Mercenaries at War, 1550–1789, anm. av Oskar Sjöström. | 170
MEDVERKANDE 172